Mont-Saint-Michel

Le Mont-Saint-Michel (pronounced [mɔ̃ sɛ̃ mi.ʃɛl]; Norman: Mont Saint Miché, English: Saint Michael’s Mount) is an island and mainland commune in Bretagne, France.

The island is located about one kilometer (0.6 miles) off the country’s northwestern coast, at the mouth of the Couesnon River near Avranches and is 7 hectares (17 acres) in area. The mainland part of the commune is 393 hectares (971 acres) in area so that the total surface of the commune is 400 hectares (988 acres).

As of 2015, the island has a population of 50.

The island has held strategic fortifications since ancient times and since the 8th century AD has been the seat of the monastery from which it draws its name. The structural composition of the town exemplifies the feudal society that constructed it: on top, God, the abbey and monastery; below, the great halls; then stores and housing; and at the bottom, outside the walls, houses for fishermen and farmers.

The commune’s position — on an island just a few hundred metres from land — made it accessible at low tide to the many pilgrims to its abbey, but defensible as an incoming tide stranded, drove off, or drowned would-be assailants. The Mont remained unconquered during the Hundred Years’ War; a small garrison fended off a full attack by the English in 1433. The reverse benefits of its natural defence were not lost on Louis XI, who turned the Mont into a prison. Thereafter the abbey began to be used regularly as a jail during the Ancien Régime.

One of France’s most recognisable landmarks, visited by more than 3 million people each year, the Mont Saint-Michel and its bay are on the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. Over 60 buildings within the commune are protected in France as monuments historiques.

Geography

Formation

Now a rocky tidal island, the Mont occupied dry land in prehistoric times. As sea levels rose, erosion reshaped the coastal landscape, and several outcrops of granite emerged in the bay, having resisted the wear and tear of the ocean better than the surrounding rocks. These included Lillemer, the Mont Dol, Tombelaine (the island just to the north), and Mont Tombe, later called Mont Saint-Michel.

Mont Saint-Michel consists of leucogranite which solidified from an underground intrusion of molten magma about 525 million years ago, during the Cambrian period, as one of the younger parts of the Mancellian granitic batholith. (Early studies of Mont Saint-Michel by French geologists sometimes describe the leucogranite of the Mont as “granulite”, but this granitic meaning of granulite is now obsolete).

The Mont has a circumference of about 960 m (3,150 ft) and its highest point is 92 m (302 ft) above sea level.

Tides

The tides can vary greatly, at roughly 14 metres (46 ft) between highest and lowest water marks. Popularly nicknamed “St. Michael in peril of the sea” by medieval pilgrims making their way across the flats, the mount can still pose dangers for visitors who avoid the causeway and attempt the hazardous walk across the sands from the neighbouring coast.

Polderisation and occasional flooding have created salt marsh meadows that were found to be ideally suited to grazing sheep. The well-flavoured meat that results from the diet of the sheep in the pré salé (salt meadow) makes agneau de pré-salé (salt meadow lamb), a local specialty that may be found on the menus of restaurants that depend on income from the many visitors to the mount.

Tidal island

The connection between the Mont Saint-Michel and the mainland has changed over the centuries. Previously connected by a tidal causeway uncovered only at low tide, this was converted into a raised causeway in 1879, preventing the tide from scouring the silt around the mount. The coastal flats have also been polderised to create pastureland, decreasing the distance between the shore and the island, and the Couesnon River has been canalised, reducing the dispersion of the flow of water. These factors all encouraged silting-up of the bay.

On 16 June 2006, the French prime minister and regional authorities announced a €164 million project (Projet Mont-Saint-Michel) to build a hydraulic damusing the waters of the Couesnon and the tides to help remove the accumulated silt, and to make Mont Saint-Michel an island again. The construction of the dam began in 2009. The project also includes the removal of the causeway and its visitor car park. Since 28 April 2012, the new car park on the mainland has been located 2.5 kilometres (1.6 miles) from the island. Visitors can walk or use shuttles to cross the causeway.

On 22 July 2014, the new bridge by architect Dietmar Feichtinger was opened to the public. The light bridge allows the waters to flow freely around the island and improves the efficiency of the now operational dam. The project, which cost €209 million, was officially opened by President François Hollande.

On rare occasions, tidal circumstances produce an extremely high “supertide”. The new bridge was completely submerged on 21 March 2015 by the highest sea level for at least 18 years, as crowds gathered to snap photos.

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Mona Lisa

The Mona Lisa (/ˌmoʊnə ˈliːsə/; Italian: Monna Lisa [ˈmɔnna ˈliːza] or La Gioconda [la dʒoˈkonda], French: La Joconde [la ʒɔkɔ̃d]) is a half-length portrait painting by the Italian Renaissanceartist Leonardo da Vinci that has been described as “the best known, the most visited, the most written about, the most sung about, the most parodied work of art in the world”. The Mona Lisa is also one of the most valuable paintings in the world. It holds the Guinness World Record for the highest known insurance valuation in history at $100 million in 1962, which is worth nearly $800 million in 2017.

The painting is thought to be a portrait of Lisa Gherardini, the wife of Francesco del Giocondo, and is in oil on a white Lombardy poplarpanel. It had been believed to have been painted between 1503 and 1506; however, Leonardo may have continued working on it as late as 1517. Recent academic work suggests that it would not have been started before 1513. It was acquired by King Francis I of France and is now the property of the French Republic, on permanent display at the Louvre Museum in Paris since 1797.

The subject’s expression, which is frequently described as enigmatic, the monumentality of the composition, the subtle modelling of forms, and the atmospheric illusionism were novel qualities that have contributed to the continuing fascination and study of the work.

Title and subject

The title of the painting, which is known in English as Mona Lisa, comes from a description by Renaissance art historian Giorgio Vasari, who wrote “Leonardo undertook to paint, for Francesco del Giocondo, the portrait of Mona Lisa, his wife.” Mona in Italian is a polite form of address originating as “ma donna” – similar to “Ma’am”, “Madam”, or “my lady” in English. This became “madonna“, and its contraction “mona”. The title of the painting, though traditionally spelled “Mona” (as used by Vasari), is also commonly spelled in modern Italian as Monna Lisa (“mona” being a vulgarity in some Italian dialects) but this is rare in English.

Vasari’s account of the Mona Lisa comes from his biography of Leonardo published in 1550, 31 years after the artist’s death. It has long been the best-known source of information on the provenance of the work and identity of the sitter. Leonardo’s assistant Salaì, at his death in 1524, owned a portrait which in his personal papers was named la Gioconda, a painting bequeathed to him by Leonardo.

That Leonardo painted such a work, and its date, were confirmed in 2005 when a scholar at Heidelberg Universitydiscovered a marginal note in a 1477 printing of a volume written by the ancient Roman philosopher Cicero. Dated October 1503, the note was written by Leonardo’s contemporary Agostino Vespucci. This note likens Leonardo to renowned Greek painter Apelles, who is mentioned in the text, and states that Leonardo was at that time working on a painting of Lisa del Giocondo.

In response to the announcement of the discovery of this document, Vincent Delieuvin, the Louvre representative, stated “Leonardo da Vinci was painting, in 1503, the portrait of a Florentine lady by the name of Lisa del Giocondo. About this we are now certain. Unfortunately, we cannot be absolutely certain that this portrait of Lisa del Giocondo is the painting of the Louvre.

The model, Lisa del Giocondo, was a member of the Gherardini family of Florence and Tuscany, and the wife of wealthy Florentine silk merchant Francesco del Giocondo. The painting is thought to have been commissioned for their new home, and to celebrate the birth of their second son, Andrea. The Italian name for the painting, La Gioconda, means “jocund” (“happy” or “jovial”) or, literally, “the jocund one”, a pun on the feminine form of Lisa’s married name, “Giocondo”. In French, the title La Joconde has the same meaning.

Before that discovery, scholars had developed several alternative views as to the subject of the painting. Some argued that Lisa del Giocondo was the subject of a different portrait, identifying at least four other paintings as the Mona Lisareferred to by Vasari. Several other women have been proposed as the subject of the painting. Isabella of Aragon, Cecilia Gallerani, Costanza d’Avalos, Duchess of Francavilla,[22] Isabella d’Este, Pacifica Brandano or Brandino, Isabela Gualanda, Caterina Sforza—even Salaì and Leonardo himself—are all among the list of posited models portrayed in the painting. The consensus of art historians in the 21st century maintains the long-held traditional opinion, that the painting depicts Lisa del Giocondo.

Theft and vandalism

On 21 August 1911, the painting was stolen from the Louvre. The theft was not discovered until the next day, when painter Louis Béroud walked into the museum and went to the Salon Carré where the Mona Lisa had been on display for five years, only to find four iron pegs on the wall. Béroud contacted the head of the guards, who thought the painting was being photographed for promotional purposes. A few hours later, Béroud checked back with the Section Chief of the Louvre who confirmed that the Mona Lisa was not with the photographers. The Louvre was closed for an entire week during the investigation.

French poet Guillaume Apollinaire came under suspicion and was arrested and imprisoned. Apollinaire implicated his friend Pablo Picasso, who was brought in for questioning. Both were later exonerated. Two years later the thief revealed himself. Louvre employee Vincenzo Peruggia had stolen the Mona Lisa by entering the building during regular hours, hiding in a broom closet, and walking out with it hidden under his coat after the museum had closed. Peruggia was an Italian patriot who believed Leonardo’s painting should have been returned for display in an Italian museum.

Peruggia may have been motivated by an associate whose copies of the original would significantly rise in value after the painting’s theft. A later account suggested Eduardo de Valfierno had been the mastermind of the theft and had commissioned forger Yves Chaudron to create six copies of the painting to sell in the U.S. while the location of the original was unclear. However, the original painting remained in Europe. After having kept the Mona Lisa in his apartment for two years, Peruggia grew impatient and was caught when he attempted to sell it to directors of the Uffizi Gallery in Florence. It was exhibited in the Uffizi Gallery for over two weeks and returned to the Louvre on 4 January 1914. Peruggia served six months in prison for the crime and was hailed for his patriotism in Italy. Before its theft, the Mona Lisa was not widely known outside the art world. It was not until the 1860s that some critics, a thin slice of the French intelligentsia, began to hail it as a masterwork of Renaissance painting.

In 1956, part of the painting was damaged when a vandal threw acid at it.On 30 December of that year, a rock was thrown at the painting, dislodging a speck of pigment near the left elbow, later restored.

The use of bulletproof glass has shielded the Mona Lisa from subsequent attacks. In April 1974, while the painting was on display at the Tokyo National Museum, a woman sprayed it with red paint as a protest against that museum’s failure to provide access for disabled people. On 2 August 2009, a Russian woman, distraught over being denied French citizenship, threw a ceramic teacup purchased at the Louvre; the vessel shattered against the glass enclosure. In both cases, the painting was undamaged.

Aesthetics

The Mona Lisa bears a strong resemblance to many Renaissance depictions of the Virgin Mary, who was at that time seen as an ideal for womanhood.

The depiction of the sitter in three-quarter profile is similar to late 15th-century works by Lorenzo di Credi and Agnolo di Domenico del Mazziere. Zöllner notes that the sitter’s general position can be traced back to Flemish models and that “in particular the vertical slices of columns at both sides of the panel had precedents in Flemish portraiture.” Woods-Marsden cites Hans Memling’s portrait of Benedetto Portinari(1487) or Italian imitations such as Sebastiano Mainardi’s pendant portraits for the use of a loggia, which has the effect of mediating between the sitter and the distant landscape, a feature missing from Leonardo’s earlier portrait of Ginevra de’ Benci.

The woman sits markedly upright in a “pozzetto” armchair with her arms folded, a sign of her reserved posture. Her gaze is fixed on the observer. The woman appears alive to an unusual extent, which Leonardo achieved by his method of not drawing outlines (sfumato). The soft blending creates an ambiguous mood “mainly in two features: the corners of the mouth, and the corners of the eyes”.

The painting was one of the first portraits to depict the sitter in front of an imaginary landscape, and Leonardo was one of the first painters to use aerial perspective. The enigmatic woman is portrayed seated in what appears to be an open loggia with dark pillar bases on either side. Behind her, a vast landscape recedes to icy mountains. Winding paths and a distant bridge give only the slightest indications of human presence. Leonardo has chosen to place the horizon line not at the neck, as he did with Ginevra de’ Benci, but on a level with the eyes, thus linking the figure with the landscape and emphasizing the mysterious nature of the painting.

Mona Lisa has no clearly visible eyebrows or eyelashes. Some researchers claim that it was common at this time for genteel women to pluck these hairs, as they were considered unsightly. In 2007, French engineer Pascal Cotte announced that his ultra-high resolution scans of the painting provide evidence that Mona Lisa was originally painted with eyelashes and with visible eyebrows, but that these had gradually disappeared over time, perhaps as a result of overcleaning. Cotte discovered the painting had been reworked several times, with changes made to the size of the Mona Lisa’s face and the direction of her gaze. He also found that in one layer the subject was depicted wearing numerous hairpins and a headdress adorned with pearls which was later scrubbed out and overpainted.

There has been much speculation regarding the painting’s model and landscape. For example, Leonardo probably painted his model faithfully since her beauty is not seen as being among the best, “even when measured by late quattrocento (15th century) or even twenty-first century standards.”Some art historians in Eastern art, such as Yukio Yashiro, argue that the landscape in the background of the picture was influenced by Chinese paintings,[74] but this thesis has been contested for lack of clear evidence.

Research in 2003 by Professor Margaret Livingstone of Harvard University said that Mona Lisa’s smile disappears when observed with direct vision, known as foveal. Because of the way the human eye processes visual information, it is less suited to pick up shadows directly; however, peripheral vision can pick up shadows well.

Research in 2008 by a geomorphology professor at Urbino University and an artist-photographer revealed likenesses of Mona Lisa‘s landscapes to some views in the Montefeltro region in the Italian provinces of Pesaro and Urbino, and Rimini.

 

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Kaaba

The Kaaba (Arabic: ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة‎ al-kaʿbah IPA: [alˈkaʕba], “The Cube”), also referred as al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah (Arabic: ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة الْـمُـشَـرًّفَـة‎, the Holy Ka’bah), is a building at the center of Islam‘s most important mosque, that is Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (Arabic: ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـد الْـحَـرَام‎, The Sacred Mosque), in the Hejazicity of Mecca, Saudi Arabia.[1] It is the most sacred site in Islam. It is considered by Muslims to be the Bayṫ Allāh (Arabic: بَـيْـت ٱلله‎, “House of God”), and has a similar role to the Tabernacle and Holy of Holies in Judaism. Its location determines the qiblah (Arabic: قِـبْـلَـة‎, direction of prayer). Wherever they are in the world, Muslims are expected to face the Kaaba when performing Ṣalâṫ (Arabic: صَـلَاة‎, Islamic prayer).

One of the Five Pillars of Islam requires every Muslim who is able to do so to perform the Hajj (Arabic: حَـجّ‎, Greater Pilgrimage) at least once in their lifetime. Multiple parts of the hajj require pilgrims to make Tawaf (Arabic: طَـوَاف‎, Circumambulation) seven times around the Kaaba in a counter-clockwise direction. Tawaf is also performed by pilgrims during the Umrah(Arabic: عُـمْـرَة‎, Lesser Pilgrimage). However, the most significant time is during the hajj, when millions of pilgrims gather to circle the building within a 5-day period. In 2017, the number of pilgrims coming from outside the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to perform hajj was officially reported as 1,752,014 and 600,108 Saudi Arabian residents bringing the total number of pilgrims to 2,352,122.

Lexicology

The literal meaning of the Arabic word kaʿbah (كَعْبَة) is “cube.” In the Quran, the Kaaba is also mentioned as al-bayt(Arabic: البیت “the house”) and baytī (Arabic: بیتی “my house”) [2:125, 22:26], al-bayt al-ḥarām (Arabic: البیت الحرام “The Sacred House”) [5:97], al-bayt al-‘atīq (Arabic: البیت العتیق “The Ancient House”) [22:29,33], and baytika al-muḥarram (Arabic: بیتك المحرم “your inviolable house”). The mosque surrounding the Kaaba is called al-Masjid al-Haram(“The Sacred Mosque”). According to some reports, in ancient times, the Kaaba was also called Qâdis (Arabic: القادس “holy”) and Nâdhir (Arabic: الناذر “dedicated, consecrated”).

Architecture and interior

The Kaaba is a cuboid stone structure made of granite. It is approximately 13.1 m (43 ft) high (some claim 12.03 m (39.5 ft)), with sides measuring 11.03 m (36.2 ft) by 12.86 m (42.2 ft).[7][8] Inside the Kaaba, the floor is made of marble and limestone. The interior walls, measuring 13 m (43 ft) by 9 m (30 ft), are clad with tiled, white marble halfway to the roof, with darker trimmings along the floor. The floor of the interior stands about 2.2 m (7.2 ft) above the ground area where tawaf is performed.

The wall directly adjacent to the entrance of the Kaaba has six tablets inlaid with inscriptions, and there are several more tablets along the other walls. Along the top corners of the walls runs a green cloth embroidered with gold Qur’anic verses. Caretakers anoint the marble cladding with the same scented oil used to anoint the Black Stone outside. Three pillars (some erroneously report two) stand inside the Kaaba, with a small altar or table set between one and the other two. (It has been claimed that this table is used for the placement of perfumes or other items.) Lamp-like objects (possible lanterns or crucible censers) hang from the ceiling. The ceiling itself is of a darker colour, similar in hue to the lower trimming. A golden door—the bāb al-tawbah (also romanized as Baabut Taubah, and meaning “Door of Repentance”)—on the right wall (right of the entrance) opens to an enclosed staircase that leads to a hatch, which itself opens to the roof. Both the roof and ceiling (collectively dual-layered) are made of stainless steel-capped teak wood.

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Great Pyramid of Giza

The Great Pyramid of Giza (also known as the Pyramid of Khufu or the Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza pyramid complex bordering what is now El Giza, Egypt. It is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and the only one to remain largely intact.

Based on a mark in an interior chamber naming the work gang and a reference to the fourth dynasty Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu, Egyptologists believe that the pyramid was built as a tomb over a 10- to 20-year period concluding around 2560 BC. Initially at 146.5 metres (481 feet), the Great Pyramid was the tallest man-made structure in the world for more than 3,800 years. Originally, the Great Pyramid was covered by limestone casing stones that formed a smooth outer surface; what is seen today is the underlying core structure. Some of the casing stones that once covered the structure can still be seen around the base. There have been varying scientific and alternative theories about the Great Pyramid’s construction techniques. Most accepted construction hypotheses are based on the idea that it was built by moving huge stones from a quarry and dragging and lifting them into place.

There are three known chambers inside the Great Pyramid. The lowest chamber is cut into the bedrock upon which the pyramid was built and was unfinished. The so-called Queen’s Chamber and King’s Chamber are higher up within the pyramid structure. The main part of the Giza complex is a set of buildings that included two mortuary temples in honour of Khufu (one close to the pyramid and one near the Nile), three smaller pyramids for Khufu’s wives, an even smaller “satellite” pyramid, a raised causeway connecting the two temples, and small mastaba tombs surrounding the pyramid for nobles.

Egyptologists believe the pyramid was built as a tomb for the Fourth DynastyEgyptian pharaoh Khufu (often Hellenized as “Cheops”) and was constructed over a 20-year period. Khufu’s vizier, Hemiunu (also called Hemon) is believed by some to be the architect of the Great Pyramid. It is thought that, at construction, the Great Pyramid was originally 280 Egyptian Royal cubits tall (146.5 metres (480.6 ft)), but with erosion and absence of its pyramidion, its present height is 138.8 metres (455.4 ft). Each base side was 440 cubits, 230.4 metres (755.9 ft) long. The mass of the pyramid is estimated at 5.9 million tonnes. The volume, including an internal hillock, is roughly 2,500,000 cubic metres (88,000,000 cu ft).

Based on these estimates, building the pyramid in 20 years would involve installing approximately 800 tonnes of stone every day. Additionally, since it consists of an estimated 2.3 million blocks, completing the building in 20 years would involve moving an average of more than 12 of the blocks into place each hour, day and night. The first precision measurements of the pyramid were made by Egyptologist Sir Flinders Petrie in 1880–82 and published as The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh. Almost all reports are based on his measurements. Many of the casing-stones and inner chamber blocks of the Great Pyramid fit together with extremely high precision. Based on measurements taken on the north-eastern casing stones, the mean opening of the joints is only 0.5 millimetre wide (1/50 of an inch).

The pyramid remained the tallest man-made structure in the world for over 3,800 years, unsurpassed until the 160-metre-tall (520 ft) spire of Lincoln Cathedral was completed c. 1300. The accuracy of the pyramid’s workmanship is such that the four sides of the base have an average error of only 58 millimetres in length. The base is horizontal and flat to within ±15 mm (0.6 in). The sides of the square base are closely aligned to the four cardinal compass points (within four minutes of arc) based on true north, not magnetic north, and the finished base was squared to a mean corner error of only 12 seconds of arc.

The completed design dimensions, as suggested by Petrie’s survey and subsequent studies, are estimated to have originally been 280 Egyptian Royal cubits high by 440 cubits long at each of the four sides of its base. The ratio of the perimeter to height of 1760/280 Egyptian Royal cubits equates to 2π to an accuracy of better than 0.05 percent (corresponding to the well-known approximation of π as 22/7). Some Egyptologists consider this to have been the result of deliberate design proportion. Verner wrote, “We can conclude that although the ancient Egyptians could not precisely define the value of π, in practice they used it”. Petrie, author of Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh concluded: “but these relations of areas and of circular ratio are so systematic that we should grant that they were in the builder’s design”. Others have argued that the Ancient Egyptians had no concept of pi and would not have thought to encode it in their monuments. They believe that the observed pyramid slope may be based on a simple seked slope choice alone, with no regard to the overall size and proportions of the finished building. In 2013, rolls of papyrus called the Diary of Merer were discovered written by some of those who delivered limestone and other construction materials from Tora to Giza.

Materials

The Great Pyramid consists of an estimated 2.3 million blocks which most believe to have been transported from nearby quarries. The Tura limestone used for the casing was quarried across the river. The largest granite stones in the pyramid, found in the “King’s” chamber, weigh 25 to 80 tonnes and were transported from Aswan, more than 800 km (500 mi) away. Traditionally, ancient Egyptians cut stone blocks by hammering into them wooden wedges, which were then soaked with water. As the water was absorbed, the wedges expanded, causing the rock to crack. Once they were cut, they were carried by boat either up or down the Nile River to the pyramid. It is estimated that 5.5 million tonnes of limestone, 8,000 tonnes of granite (imported from Aswan), and 500,000 tonnes of mortar were used in the construction of the Great Pyramid.

Casing stones

At completion, the Great Pyramid was surfaced by white “casing stones”—slant-faced, but flat-topped, blocks of highly polished white limestone. These were carefully cut to what is approximately a face slope with a seked of 5½ palms to give the required dimensions. Visibly, all that remains is the underlying stepped core structure seen today. In AD 1303, a massive earthquake loosened many of the outer casing stones, which were then carted away by Bahri Sultan An-Nasir Nasir-ad-Din al-Hasan in 1356 to build mosques and fortresses in nearby Cairo. Many more casing stones were removed from the great pyramids by Muhammad Ali Pasha in the early 19th century to build the upper portion of his Alabaster Mosque in Cairo, not far from Giza. These limestone casings can still be seen as parts of these structures. Later explorers reported massive piles of rubble at the base of the pyramids left over from the continuing collapse of the casing stones, which were subsequently cleared away during continuing excavations of the site.

Nevertheless, a few of the casing stones from the lowest course can be seen to this day in situ around the base of the Great Pyramid, and display the same workmanship and precision that has been reported for centuries. Petrie also found a different orientation in the core and in the casing measuring 193 centimetres ± 25 centimetres. He suggested a redetermination of north was made after the construction of the core, but a mistake was made, and the casing was built with a different orientation. Petrie related the precision of the casing stones as to being “equal to opticians’ work of the present day, but on a scale of acres” and “to place such stones in exact contact would be careful work; but to do so with cement in the joints seems almost impossible”. It has been suggested it was the mortar (Petrie’s “cement”) that made this seemingly impossible task possible, providing a level bed, which enabled the masons to set the stones exactly.

Construction theories

Many alternative, often contradictory, theories have been proposed regarding the pyramid’s construction techniques. Many disagree on whether the blocks were dragged, lifted, or even rolled into place. The Greeks believed that slave labour was used, but modern discoveries made at nearby workers’ camps associated with construction at Giza suggest that it was built instead by tens of thousands of skilled workers. Verner posited that the labour was organized into a hierarchy, consisting of two gangs of 100,000 men, divided into five zaa or phyle of 20,000 men each, which may have been further divided according to the skills of the workers.

One mystery of the pyramid’s construction is its planning. John Romer suggests that they used the same method that had been used for earlier and later constructions, laying out parts of the plan on the ground at a 1-to-1 scale. He writes that “such a working diagram would also serve to generate the architecture of the pyramid with precision unmatched by any other means”. He also argues for a 14-year time-span for its construction. A modern construction management study, in association with Mark Lehner and other Egyptologists, estimated that the total project required an average workforce of about 14,500 people and a peak workforce of roughly 40,000. Without the use of pulleys, wheels, or iron tools, they used critical path analysis methods, which suggest that the Great Pyramid was completed from start to finish in approximately 10 years.[

Interior

The original entrance to the Great Pyramid is on the north, 17 metres (56 ft) vertically above ground level and 7.29 metres (23.9 ft) east of the centre line of the pyramid. From this original entrance, there is a Descending Passage 0.96 metres (3.1 ft) high and 1.04 metres (3.4 ft) wide, which goes down at an angle of 26° 31’23” through the masonry of the pyramid and then into the bedrock beneath it. After 105.23 metres (345.2 ft), the passage becomes level and continues for an additional 8.84 metres (29.0 ft) to the lower Chamber, which appears not to have been finished. There is a continuation of the horizontal passage in the south wall of the lower chamber; there is also a pit dug in the floor of the chamber. Some Egyptologists suggest that this Lower Chamber was intended to be the original burial chamber, but Pharaoh Khufu later changed his mind and wanted it to be higher up in the pyramid.

28.2 metres (93 ft) from the entrance is a square hole in the roof of the Descending Passage. Originally concealed with a slab of stone, this is the beginning of the Ascending Passage. The Ascending Passage is 39.3 metres (129 ft) long, as wide and high as the Descending Passage and slopes up at almost precisely the same angle to reach the Grand Gallery. The lower end of the Ascending Passage is closed by three huge blocks of granite, each about 1.5 metres (4.9 ft) long. One must use the Robbers’ Tunnel (see below) to access the Ascending Passage. At the start of the Grand Gallery on the right-hand side there is a hole cut in the wall. This is the start of a vertical shaft which follows an irregular path through the masonry of the pyramid to join the Descending Passage. Also at the start of the Grand Gallery there is the Horizontal Passage leading to the “Queen’s Chamber”. The passage is 1.1m (3’8″) high for most of its length, but near the chamber there is a step in the floor, after which the passage is 1.73 metres (5.7 ft) high.

Queen’s Chamber

The “Queen’s Chamber” is exactly halfway between the north and south faces of the pyramid and measures 5.75 metres (18.9 ft) north to south, 5.23 metres (17.2 ft) east to west, and has a pointed roof with an apex 6.23 metres (20.4 ft) above the floor. At the eastern end of the chamber there is a niche 4.67 metres (15.3 ft) high. The original depth of the niche was 1.04 metres (3.4 ft), but has since been deepened by treasure hunters.

In the north and south walls of the Queen’s Chamber there are shafts, which, unlike those in the King’s Chamber that immediately slope upwards (see below), are horizontal for around 2 m (6.6 ft) before sloping upwards. The horizontal distance was cut in 1872 by a British engineer, Waynman Dixon, who believed a shaft similar to those in the King’s Chamber must also exist. He was proved right, but because the shafts are not connected to the outer faces of the pyramid or the Queen’s Chamber, their purpose is unknown. At the end of one of his shafts, Dixon discovered a ball of black diorite (a type of rock) and a bronze implement of unknown purpose. Both objects are currently in the British Museum.

The shafts in the Queen’s Chamber were explored in 1993 by the German engineer Rudolf Gantenbrink using a crawler robot he designed, Upuaut 2. After a climb of 65 m (213 ft), he discovered that one of the shafts was blocked by limestone “doors” with two eroded copper “handles”. Some years later the National Geographic Society created a similar robot which, in September 2002, drilled a small hole in the southern door, only to find another door behind it. The northern passage, which was difficult to navigate because of twists and turns, was also found to be blocked by a door.

Research continued in 2011 with the Djedi Project. Realizing the problem was that the National Geographic Society‘s camera was only able to see straight ahead of it, they instead used a fibre-optic “micro snake camera” that could see around corners. With this they were able to penetrate the first door of the southern shaft through the hole drilled in 2002, and view all the sides of the small chamber behind it. They discovered hieroglyphs written in red paint. They were also able to scrutinize the inside of the two copper “handles” embedded in the door, and they now believe them to be for decorative purposes. They also found the reverse side of the “door” to be finished and polished, which suggests that it was not put there just to block the shaft from debris, but rather for a more specific reason.

Grand Gallery

The Grand Gallery continues the slope of the Ascending Passage, but is 8.6 metres (28 ft) high and 46.68 metres (153.1 ft) long. At the base it is 2.06 metres (6.8 ft) wide, but after 2.29 metres (7.5 ft) the blocks of stone in the walls are corbelled inwards by 7.6 centimetres (3.0 in) on each side. There are seven of these steps, so, at the top, the Grand Gallery is only 1.04 metres (3.4 ft) wide. It is roofed by slabs of stone laid at a slightly steeper angle than the floor of the gallery, so that each stone fits into a slot cut in the top of the gallery like the teeth of a ratchet. The purpose was to have each block supported by the wall of the Gallery, rather than resting on the block beneath it, in order to prevent cumulative pressure.

At the upper end of the Gallery on the right-hand side there is a hole near the roof that opens into a short tunnel by which access can be gained to the lowest of the Relieving Chambers. The other Relieving Chambers were discovered in 1837–1838 by Colonel Howard Vyse and J. S. Perring, who dug tunnels upwards using blasting powder.

The floor of the Grand Gallery consists of a shelf or step on either side, 51 centimetres (20 in) wide, leaving a lower ramp 1.04 metres (3.4 ft) wide between them. In the shelves there are 54 slots, 27 on each side matched by vertical and horizontal slots in the walls of the Gallery. These form a cross shape that rises out of the slot in the shelf. The purpose of these slots is not known, but the central gutter in the floor of the Gallery, which is the same width as the Ascending Passage, has led to speculation that the blocking stones were stored in the Grand Gallery and the slots held wooden beams to restrain them from sliding down the passage.This, in turn, has led to the proposal that originally many more than 3 blocking stones were intended, to completely fill the Ascending Passage.

At the top of the Grand Gallery, there is a step giving onto a horizontal passage some metres long and approximately 1.02 metres (3.3 ft) in height and width, in which can be detected four slots, three of which were probably intended to hold granite portcullises. Fragments of granite found by Petrie in the Descending Passage may have come from these now-vanished doors.

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Forbidden City

The Forbidden City is a palace complex in central Beijing, China. The former Chinese imperial palace from the Ming dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty (the years 1420 to 1912), it now houses the Palace Museum. The Forbidden City served as the home of emperors and their households as well as the ceremonial and political center of Chinese government for almost 500 years.

Constructed from 1406 to 1420, the complex consists of 980 buildings and covers 72 hectares (over 180 acres). The palace exemplifies traditional Chinese palatial architecture, and has influenced cultural and architectural developments in East Asia and elsewhere. The Forbidden City was declared a World Heritage Site in 1987, and is listed by UNESCO as the largest collection of preserved ancient wooden structures in the world.

Since 1925, the Forbidden City has been under the charge of the Palace Museum, whose extensive collection of artwork and artifacts were built upon the imperial collections of the Ming and Qing dynasties. Part of the museum’s former collection is now in the National Palace Museum in Taipei. Both museums descend from the same institution, but were split after the Chinese Civil War. Since 2012, the Forbidden City has seen an average of 15 million visitors annually, and received more than 16 million visitors in 2016 and 2017.

Name

The common English name “Forbidden City” is a translation of the Chinese name Zijin Cheng (Chinese: ; pinyin: Zǐjìnchéng; literally: “Purple Forbidden City”). The name Zijin Cheng first formally appeared in 1576. Another English name of similar origin is “Forbidden Palace”.

The name “Zijin Cheng” is a name with significance on many levels. Zi, or “Purple”, refers to the North Star, which in ancient China was called the Ziwei Star, and in traditional Chinese astrology was the heavenly abode of the Celestial Emperor. The surrounding celestial region, the Ziwei Enclosure (Chinese: ; pinyin: Zǐwēiyuán), was the realm of the Celestial Emperor and his family. The Forbidden City, as the residence of the terrestrial emperor, was its earthly counterpart. Jin, or “Forbidden“, referred to the fact that no one could enter or leave the palace without the emperor’s permission. Cheng means a city.

Today, the site is most commonly known in Chinese as Gùgōng (), which means the “Former Palace”. The museum which is based in these buildings is known as the “Palace Museum” (Chinese: ; pinyin: Gùgōng Bówùyùan).

History

When Hongwu Emperor‘s son Zhu Dibecame the Yongle Emperor, he moved the capital from Nanjing to Beijing, and construction began in 1406 on what would become the Forbidden City.

Construction lasted 14 years and required more than a million workers. Material used include whole logs of precious Phoebe zhennan wood (Chinese: ; pinyin: nánmù) found in the jungles of south-western China, and large blocks of marble from quarries near Beijing. The floors of major halls were paved with “golden bricks” (Chinese: ; pinyin: jīnzhuān), specially baked paving bricks from Suzhou.

From 1420 to 1644, the Forbidden City was the seat of the Ming dynasty. In April 1644, it was captured by rebel forces led by Li Zicheng, who proclaimed himself emperor of the Shun dynasty. He soon fled before the combined armies of former Ming general Wu Sangui and Manchu forces, setting fire to parts of the Forbidden City in the process.

By October, the Manchus had achieved supremacy in northern China, and a ceremony was held at the Forbidden City to proclaim the young Shunzhi Emperor as ruler of all China under the Qing dynasty. The Qing rulers changed the names on some of the principal buildings, to emphasise “Harmony” rather than “Supremacy”, made the name plates bilingual (Chinese and Manchu), and introduced Shamanist elements to the palace.

In 1860, during the Second Opium War, Anglo-French forces took control of the Forbidden City and occupied it until the end of the war. In 1900 Empress Dowager Cixi fled from the Forbidden City during the Boxer Rebellion, leaving it to be occupied by forces of the treaty powers until the following year.

After being the home of 24 emperors – 14 of the Ming dynasty and 10 of the Qing dynasty – the Forbidden City ceased being the political centre of China in 1912 with the abdication of Puyi, the last Emperor of China. Under an agreement with the new Republic of China government, Puyi remained in the Inner Court, while the Outer Court was given over to public use, until he was evicted after a coup in 1924. The Palace Museum was then established in the Forbidden City in 1925. In 1933, the Japanese invasion of China forced the evacuation of the national treasures in the Forbidden City. Part of the collection was returned at the end of World War II, but the other part was evacuated to Taiwan in 1948 under orders by Chiang Kai-shek, whose Kuomintang was losing the Chinese Civil War. This relatively small but high quality collection was kept in storage until 1965, when it again became public, as the core of the National Palace Museum in Taipei.

After the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, some damage was done to the Forbidden City as the country was swept up in revolutionary zeal. During the Cultural Revolution, however, further destruction was prevented when Premier Zhou Enlai sent an army battalion to guard the city.

The Forbidden City was declared a World Heritage Site in 1987 by UNESCO as the “Imperial Palace of the Ming and Qing Dynasties”, due to its significant place in the development of Chinese architecture and culture. It is currently administered by the Palace Museum, which is carrying out a sixteen-year restoration project to repair and restore all buildings in the Forbidden City to their pre-1912 state.

In recent years, the presence of commercial enterprises in the Forbidden City has become controversial. A Starbucksstore that opened in 2000 sparked objections and eventually closed on 13 July 2007. Chinese media also took notice of a pair of souvenir shops that refused to admit Chinese citizens in order to price-gouge foreign customers in 2006.

On November 8, 2017, President of the United States Donald Trump was the first US President to be granted a state dinner in the Forbidden City since the founding of the People’s Republic of China.

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Central Park

Central Park is an urban park in Manhattan, New York City. It is located between the Upper West Side and Upper East Side, roughly bounded by Fifth Avenue on the east, Central Park West (Eighth Avenue) on the west, Central Park South (59th Street) on the south, and Central Park North (110th Street) on the north. Central Park is the most visited urban park in the United States, with 40 million visitors in 2013, and one of the most filmed locations in the world. In terms of area, Central Park is the fifth-largest park in New York City, covering 843 acres (341 ha).

The park was established in 1857 on 778 acres (315 ha) of land acquired by the city. In 1858, landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted and architect/landscape designer Calvert Vaux won a design competition to improve and expand the park with a plan they titled the “Greensward Plan”. Construction began the same year, and the park’s first area was opened to the public in the winter of 1858. Construction north of the park continued during the American Civil War in the 1860s, and the park was expanded to its current size in 1873. After a period of decline in the early 20th century, Robert Moses started a program to clean up Central Park. Another decline in the late 20th century spurred the creation of the Central Park Conservancy in 1980, which refurbished many parts of the park during the 1980s and 1990s.

Central Park was designated a National Historic Landmark by the U.S. Department of the Interior in 1963[5], which in April 2017 placed it on the tentative list for UNESCO World Heritage sites.The park, managed for decades by the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, is currently managed by the Central Park Conservancy under contract with the municipal government in a public-private partnership. The Conservancy is a non-profit organization that contributes 75 percent of Central Park’s $65 million annual budget and is responsible for all basic care of the 843-acre park.

Description

Central Park, which has been a National Historic Landmark since 1962, was designed by landscape architect and writer Frederick Law Olmsted and the English architect Calvert Vaux in 1858 after winning a design competition. They also designed Brooklyn‘s Prospect Park. Central Park is the fifth-largest park in New York City, behind Flushing Meadows-Corona Park, Van Cortlandt Park, the Staten Island Greenbelt, and Pelham Bay Park.[10] Central Park is located on 843 acres (3.41 km2; 1.317 sq mi) of land, although its original area was 770 acres (3.1 km2). The park, with a perimeter of 6.1 miles (9.8 km), is bordered on the north by Central Park North (110th Street), on the south by Central Park South (59th Street), on the west by Central Park West (Eighth Avenue), and on the east by Fifth Avenue. It is 2.5 miles (4 km) long between Central Park South and Central Park North, and is 0.5 mile (0.8 km) wide between Fifth Avenue and Central Park West.

Central Park constitutes its own United States census tract, number 143. According to American Community Survey 5-year estimates, the park’s population was five people, all female, with a median age of 19.8 years. However Central Park officials have rejected the claim of anyone permanently living there.[14] The real estate value of Central Park was estimated by property appraisal firm Miller Samuel to be about $528.8 billion in December 2005.

Central Park’s size and cultural position, similar to London’s Hyde Park and Munich’s Englischer Garten, has served as a model for many urban parks, including San Francisco’s Golden Gate Park, Tokyo’s Ueno Park, and Vancouver’s Stanley Park. The park, which receives approximately 35 million visitors annually, is the most visited urban park in the United States. It is also the most filmed location in the world. A December 2017 report found that 231 movies have used Central Park for on-location shoots, more than the 160 movies that have filmed in Greenwich Village or the 99 movies that have filmed in Times Square.

The park is maintained by the Central Park Conservancy, a private, not-for-profitorganization that manages the park under a contract with the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, in which the president of the Conservancy is ex officio Administrator of Central Park. Today, the conservancy employs 80% of maintenance and operations staff in the park. It effectively oversees the work of both the private and public employees under the authority of the Central Park administrator (publicly appointed), who reports to the parks commissioner, conservancy’s president. As of 2007, the conservancy had invested approximately $450 million in the restoration and management of the park; the organization presently contributes approximately 85% of Central Park’s annual operating budget of over $37 million. The system was functioning so well that in 2006 the conservancy created the Historic Harlem Parks initiative, providing horticultural and maintenance support and mentoring in Morningside Park, St. Nicholas Park, Jackie Robinson Park, and Marcus Garvey Park.

The park has its own New York City Police Department precinct—the Central Park Precinct—which employs both regular police and auxiliary officers. In 2005, safety measures held the number of crimes in the park to fewer than one hundred per year (down from approximately 1,000 annually in the early 1980s). The New York City Parks Enforcement Patrol also patrols Central Park. There is an all-volunteer ambulance service, the Central Park Medical Unit, that provides free emergency medical service to patrons of Central Park and the surrounding streets. It operates a rapid-response bicycle patrol, particularly during major events such as the New York City Marathon, the 1998 Goodwill Games, and concerts in the park.

While planting and land form in much of the park appear natural, it is in fact almost entirely landscaped. The park contains several natural-looking lakes and ponds that have been created artificially by damming natural seeps and flows. There is a large area of woods in addition to seven major lawns, the “meadows”, and many minor grassy areas; some of them are used for informal or team sports and some set aside as quiet areas; there are a number of enclosed playgrounds for children. The 6 miles (9.7 km) of drives within the park are used by joggers, cyclists, skateboarders, and inline skaters, especially when automobile traffic is prohibited, on weekends and in the evenings after 7:00 pm.

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Brandenburg Gate

The Brandenburg Gate (German: Brandenburger Tor; [ˈbʁandn̩bʊɐ̯gɐ ˈtoːɐ̯]) is an 18th-century neoclassical monument in Berlin, built on the orders of Prussian king Frederick William II after the (temporarily) successful restoration of order during the early Batavian Revolution.[1] One of the best-known landmarks of Germany, it was built on the site of a former city gate that marked the start of the road from Berlin to the town of Brandenburg an der Havel, which used to be capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg.

It is located in the western part of the city centre of Berlin within Mitte, at the junction of Unter den Linden and Ebertstraße, immediately west of the Pariser Platz. One block to the north stands the Reichstag building, which houses the German parliament (Bundestag). The gate is the monumental entry to Unter den Linden, the renowned boulevard of linden trees, which led directly to the royal City Palace of the Prussian monarchs.

Throughout its existence, the Brandenburg Gate was often a site for major historical events and is today considered not only as a symbol of the tumultuous history of Europe and Germany, but also of European unityand peace.

History

Design and construction

In the time of Frederick William (1688), shortly after the Thirty Years’ War and a century before the gate was constructed, Berlin was a small walled city within a star fort with several named gates: Spandauer Tor, St. Georgen Tor, Stralower Tor, Cöpenicker Tor, Neues Tor, and Leipziger Tor (see map). Relative peace, a policy of religious tolerance, and status as capital of the Kingdom of Prussiafacilitated the growth of the city.

The Brandenburg Gate was not part of the old Berlin Fortress, but one of 18 gates within the Berlin Customs Wall(German: Akzisemauer), erected in the 1730s, including the old fortified city and many of its then suburbs.

The new gate was commissioned by Frederick William II of Prussia to represent peace. The Gate was designed by Carl Gotthard Langhans, the Court Superintendent of Buildings, and built between 1788 and 1791, replacing the earlier simple guardhouses which flanked the original gate in the Customs Wall. The gate consists of twelve Doric columns, six to each side, forming five passageways. Citizens originally were allowed to use only the outermost two on each side. Atop the gate is a Quadriga, a chariot drawn by four horses, sculpted by Johann Gottfried Schadow. The new gate was originally named the Peace Gate (German: Friedenstor)[2] and the goddess is Victoria, the goddess of victory.

The gate’s design is based upon the Propylaea, the gateway to the Acropolis in Athens, Greece, and is consistent with Berlin’s history of architectural classicism (first, Baroque, and then neo-Palladian). The gate was the first element of “Athens on the River Spree” by architect Langhans.

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Assembling the  Crown of your Crafty Quilt

Assembling the  Crown of your Crafty Quilt

How to Assemble your Crown

 

You have created flowers, basket, handles, etc, so now it’s time to assemble your crafty quilt. Let’s get started.

 

How to Assemble:

You are assembling the crown of your quilt at this point. If you haven’t started your craft project to create the Spring Basket, leave this work to those who are at the crown. To collect your crown use your threads that counterpart and begin blind stitching across your fabric, sewing your flower onto the fabric, as well as two of your foliages. Sew to the center bloom as well, and stitch en route for the wrong side (left) of your created 3-block baskets. Stitch to the right and finish your final blocks. (3)

 

At the lower region of your basket, affix your blooms so that they join with the handles. Now, snip your lighter shades of filaments/strands, and shades of pink (6) silkworm fibers (Floss), cutting lengthwise so that it is corresponding with the measurements lengthwise of your arm. You want to create strands (3) on each section of fiber. Divide and use needle and thread (large eye needle) along with the length of your three filaments and stitch so that it forms a circle. You are making your granny knots, to create the French version that will stretch about your center flower and the dark flowers you have created.

 

Again, trim your darker shades of six-pink, filaments, and silkworm fibers, cutting it along the length so that it is equivalent to your arm span. Generate 3-filaments on each section of your fibers. Partition and make use of hand used needle and filament, stitching the length the three threads. Stitch until it shapes a loop. Starting at the shades of green, snip the narrow sash pieces and cut the pieces into 1 ½ x 10 ½ inches. You are making your D-block. Snip another three narrow pieces until you achieve measured parts at 1 ½ x 28 ½ inches. You will use these parts to make your E-block. Alternatively, snip your D-block, cutting three from your pattern and form 4-D narrow pieces. You want your ducks in a row. (I.e. Blocks) Use only 2-blocks to form a row at this time and begin stitching the blocks forming 3-E narrow pieces. This is the middle region of your coverlet, or quilt. Use the variety of floral prints and snip the inside borders of your narrow pieces. Snip at least two narrow parts at 1 x 23 ½ inches. Use the parts to create the F-borders at the side. Now, snip another one x 29 ½-inch narrow pieces to create G-borders at the lower and upper region of your quilt.

 

Continuing, sew the border sides to the center of your coverlet. Continue to sew the drop and greater borders. Begin at the floral region, i.e. the print textile press with your iron. DO NOT IRON rather gently press? Lift; relocate, etc.

 

Now, you are ready to craft your binds for your quilt. Use your floral materials and sew the greater, drop, and sides of your borders. Now fill it in with the center of your quilt patterns.

 

You have done a great job, so now it is time to finish your work. Use your backing cloth, batting, and crown of your coverlet and coat. To prepare your coverlet, pin baste to layer, followed by hand sewing or machine sewing your quilt. Use your machine at the crown to sew the untreated edges. If you have extra batting, cut it. Do the same for backing cloth. Now bind and snip your satin, yellow ribbon to form your bow. Cut six even parts. Finish by tying your ribbon, forming a bow and stitch by hand your bows, one for each side of your handles on your basket.

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Craft Stitching Porcelain Doll Sleeves

Craft Stitching Porcelain Doll Sleeves

How to stitch porcelain doll sleeves

 

Once you have begun making your dress, you want to stitch your porcelain doll sleeves. To get started, affix the lace, meeting it with the edges of the sleeves and crisscross. Press once you finish. Next, gather the dual rows of your stitch and continue about the crown of the sleeve until it fits into the right armhole, coming together, pull the collected fit up, and stitch them collectively whilst keeping your face liberated. Do the same to complete the opposite sleeve.

 

Starting at the right sleeve joint with the bodice, sew the seams of the underarm from the edges of your sleeve and from side to side seams of the upper region of the dress. Now begin stitching the seams at the side of your bodice so that it faces jointly and moves to face a different direction within, covering the side facing seams. You may need to cut to fit the areas around the seams of the armholes, including the facing holes. Change directions, turning in the hems about the facing armhole, match the shoulders as well as the seams at the side, and then “slip” suture the facing in the region of the armholes, moving in the opposite direction as you stitch. Use the elastic hat and fasten it to the interior region to create the starting legs of your underclothing. You may need to cut to fit, yet add glue before you begin cutting.

 

Now you have completed your sleeves for your porcelain doll. Once you finish your sleeves, you may want to design and elegant skirt to fit your doll, as well as an apron. To get started with your skirt finish your patterns at the untreated edges, and at the seams of the back using the cross stitching method. Next, sew the seams at the back from the dot and to the hems. Line up dual lines and gather your stitches about the crown of your skirt. Fold the back seams and permit to the left side on mutual sides of your seams at the back.

 

The bodice and front middle of your skirt should come together, as well as the fold lines at the back of the upper region of your dress. Extend to the opening at the back of your skirt and keep the facing bodice liberated. Collect your thread by pulling up and extend to fit the skirt connecting it to the bodice and distributing the collected sections uniformly. Next, trim or shape the seams and fold an upward hem on the facing upper region of your dress so that it corresponds with the seams at the side of your bodice. Use the “slip stitch” method and stitch the seams along the facing so that it connects with the bodice and the skirt.

 

Now you are ready to dress your doll. As you put the dress on the doll note any areas that may need length added, and mark the seam lines. Finish the dress at the untreated edges of your hem and crisscross. Next, turn the width to needed size and hem while using the slip suture method to fit the skirt. You can make buttonholes next. To start hand sew or machine stitch your buttons after adding glue to the fabric to hold it together. Use a pin to make your buttonholes. Allow the glue to dry and then cut the region, using craft scissors. The buttons or press “000 studs” can be used and sown at the back of your skirt.

 

You are now ready to create an apron to fit your porcelain doll dress.

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Crafting the Essentials in Scrap Booking

Crafting the Essentials in Scrap Booking

How to learn craft terms for scrap booking

 

Terms are important in life, including when crafting scrapbooks. When you visit craft stores it is great to know a few terms so that the sale clerks will think you are an expert. In addition, having a basic line of terms will help you find your way, rather than getting lost when you hear the clerks talk foreign craft lingo. To get started we can consider acid.

 

How to understand craft and scrapbook terms:

Acid-free products are the key to creating and preserving your scrapbook. You want to request materials that do not have acid-based chemical reactive content. The Ph level should be around seven or even higher, to produce a safe keep scrapbook. The products should not have polyvinyl chlorides; therefore look for PVC-Free materials. Instead, look for materials made of polyester, polyethylene, or polypropylene. Lignin-Free materials will prevent your newspapers, or clippings from yellowing. Lignin is acid based. In addition, you want to learn steps to avoid acid contents touching your scrapbook. You should wash your hands prior to touching your scrapbook, and request that anyone touching your scrapbook wash their hands beforehand.

 

Archival is a common term in crafts, since many scrapbooks are made up as archrivals. Archival is the process of protecting your scrapbook from fading, yellowing, or deteriorating. Buffer paper is recommended for crafting scrapbooks. Buffer paper will protect your book from defused acids, and acid migrating from damaging your papers and photos. To find buffer paper suitable for scrapbook crafting, look for paper with the label “Photo Activity Test,” approved or P.A.T., which is approved by ANSI. (American National Standards Institute)

 

If you plan to glue your photos and news clippings, or other materials in your scrapbook, keep in mind that reversible adhesive is optional. The contents will allow you to remove the photos later and re-locate them in necessary.

 

“CK OK,” is the “Seal of Approval” that provides you a safe keep in scrap booking. If the materials you purchase do not have this seal, leave it alone.

 

Scrapbook crafting entails cropping, workshop, page exchange, produce swap, scrapbook club, layout, “Pass the chocolate,” mounting, double mount, heading, embellishment, them, title page, page, and memorabilia.”

 

How to crop:

Cropping can be done with PhotoShop otherwise, you will need scissors. The process requires that you trim the photos to fit your book. Cropping also entails collecting, allocating ideas, and putting the parts in order so that it tells a story. Workshop is the process of working together with other scrap bookers to come up with ideas. You can use PhotoShop to devise a scheme.

 

Page exchanging is similar to workshop, only you bring a page with you and work with others to share ideas and to craft a page. Product swapping is the process of getting rid of old craft materials, such as scissors, papers, etc, and swapping with your friends to gain new materials. You can create a scrapbook club from here, which swapping can occur and you and your friends can “pass the chocolate.”

 

How to layout your scrapbook:

In your club, you will hear the term layout. The term is used to define page grouping. Page grouping is the process of collecting your pages and inserting them alongside the joined group, using the same theme. You can devise your own theme, such as “My Scrapbook of Memories.”

 

Once you adhesive your photos on a single sheet of paper you are conducting the process of mounting. Double mount is comparable to Layer Mattes. The process includes adhesive two cuts of paper, sticking them together with the photos resting on top of the papers.

 

Embellishment is the terms used to define die-cuts, stickers, or related materials that make up a page in your scrapbook. The header is your title page. Title page is the start of making your scrapbook. For instance, “Jane Does Scrapbook.” The theme will define your overall ideas behind your scrapbook. Page is the process of making up non-photographic materials, such as journal, embellishments, etc decorated around your photos. Finally, memorabilia is adding souvenirs, official documents, artwork, or related documents to your scrapbook.

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Choosing Batting Quilt Fibers for Craft

Choosing Batting Quilt Fibers for Craft

How to choose batting fibers

 

Quilts include the crib sizes, twin, and full, double fit, queen, and king. The standard crib fit is around 45-inches time’s 60. Twin fits are 72 x 90, full and the double are 81 x 96, queen fits are 90 x 108, and the king fits are around 120 x 120.

 

To choose your materials you must consider batting quilt fibers. Once you choose your batting make sure that, you unfold the cotton material and let it set a couple of days before you start crafting. The batting will relax and inflate. You want to space your batting closely to avoid bunching also when crafting your quilt. Some materials require pre-washes before you can use the fabric. Read your labels.

 

You have options in battings, including the traditional, which is often made of cotton and the polyesters. The blends of polyester and cotton will shrink sometimes. To stitch the cotton you will need to create intervals of larger stitches, yet if you combine polyester with your cotton, you can minimize the stitches.

 

The line of battings, include polyester, silk, wool, etc as well. If you choose the polyester, you can create a non-shrinking quilt with intervals of larger stitches. In addition, you can create intervals of wider expansions, which you can craft your quick at a speedier pace. Polyester is the choice of battings, since crafters can design a quick, machine washable, and non-shrinking quilt. As well, the crafter can design a thinner quilt verses the thicker, since polyester is a batting made of “high loft.”

 

My favorite is silk, yet if you are creating a traditional style quilt, the silk may not be suitable. You can still make a quilt of silk, yet you will pay top-dollar and spend a length of undesired time to finish your project. In fact, most crafters do not recommend silk for creating quilts.

 

Wool has migrating fibers, yet you can sew through the material with ease. You will need to space closely when needling. The wool over time will loose its fibers however. Wool will also fuzz. You can use lightweight materials, or cloths to prevent fuzziness, as well as to prevent fiber loss. Wool is not suitable for machine wash; rather you should take your quilt to a professional cleaner, or wash it by hand and allow it to air dry.

 

Now choose your style:

If you want the antique or traditional quilt, you will need to use the “low loft” material. The quilts include the Fairfield, which is 100% bleached cotton, the poly-filled cottons, which is 80 % cotton; the “Mountain Mist/Blue Ribbon Stearns” are 100% cotton as well. You can also choose the 100% polyester, Morning Glory, or the Glory BEE I, which is also 100% polyester. Many other styles and varieties are available.

 

Once you decide which fibers, or fabrics you want to craft your quilt you can then consider your backing. You can purchase yards of backing. The backing today makes it easy to fill in the length and width of your quilt. Ultimately, if you choose backings that come up short or longer you can stitch a couple of pieces together to even your quilt. Still, you want to make sure that the backings work in harmony with your fabrics, or fibers.

 

Ultimately, if you want to spend time making a quilt you can choose blocks and patches. The pieces of material were frequently used by grandmas, or women of traditional days. The quilts are often sturdier than the modern quilts, yet you can still craft a strong quilt today.

 

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Assembling the Top Craft

Assembling the Top Craft

 

Wall hangers are easy to create. The minute size quilts once created will make a nice gift and/or decoration for your home.

 

Once you have your parts together, as well as have your tools you can get started making a wall hanger. If you are new to quilting, do not worry since the hanger we are making is one of the easier groups of craft to create.

 

Do not forget to get your rotary cutters on hand, since throughout your quilting project you will need to cut ¼-inch allowances for your seams. Now, assuming you have your green, tan, blue, yellow, and peach print in order we can get started making your top section of the quilt.

 

Briefly, I will go over the sections to help you prepare. You should have two, 2 ½ x 19 ½ inches of upper and lower borders in the green prints. You should have another two borders in green at the size of 2 ½ x 27 ½ inches. You should have the value of 36 for your D Square and the size at 1 ½ x 1 ½ inches. Tan print has six parts, i.e. A-strip, B piece, C-Strip, D-E square, and F-strip. Blue only has one part, while yellow has three and peach has one. The yellow is C-strip, D-square, and the last value of four is the cornerstone. C values eighteen, and measures at 1 ½ x 1 ½ inches, while D values 12 and measures at 2 ½ x 2 ½ inches; F is the peach strip, Peach, which values four and its gauge is 1 ½ x 3 ½ inches. Peach has the G-strip, which values four and measures at 2 ½ x 5 ½ inches. The rust prints include the value of six, which makes up the sashing #1 vertical at measures to 1 ½ x 13 ½ inches. The second sashing creates three and measures to 1 ½ x 21 ½ inches, while the last H strip values four and measures at 1 ½ x 7 ½ inches.

 

You will need to cut these pieces of your quilt out. Use the guide above to achieve a precise cut. Now you can crown your quilt. Start by creating a row and a block. Use your block, row, and begin stitching your D-Blue Square to attach to the A-Tan narrow pieces. (Strips)

 

Continue to the next color arrangement to complete the second block. Use the D-Yellow Square in the second block and create a couple of narrow pieces per color arrangement.

 

Now stitch two pieces of the tan print together to create a starting row two and in the first block. Use Tan B, a couple of Blue Cs, a Yellow C and overturn so that the yellow/blue has a gateway through the color arrangement at the second block. You want to create double narrow pieces.

 

In the third row, create a couple more rows and arrange the colors according in the blocks. In the fourth row, create another two rows so that you have a nine pattern in your color arrangement, which should extend crosswise. Alternating, add stitches to the blocks (2) and make your center by creating #2 sashing narrow pieces equaling three. Now press your fabric. Use an iron without ironing, rather pressing as you move along.

 

You are ready for your borders. Starting with the #2 border, stitch the narrow pieces so that it moves left to right, and to the sides at the right of your quilt, stitching toward the middle. Add 2 ½ x 2 ½ inches, by stitching the yellow print square. Stitch along the shorter ends linking it to your dual borders. (Strip #1) Moving along, at the edges along the top and bottom, stitch the narrow pieces, stitching along the middle. You are now ready to complete your project.

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9 ร้านอาหารคาว-หวาน เปิด 24 ชม โดนใจสายยังไม่ได้นอนเลยจะ 10โมงเช้า !!

วันนี้ เราจะมา เผยร้าน อาหาร เหมือนจะลับแต่ไม่ลับ ที่ทีเด็ดนอกจากรสชาติแล้ว คือมันเปิด 24 ชม. !!

เหมาะกับหนุ่มนักเล่นเกมส์ ยามดึก   สาวๆ ที่อกหักอยากหาที่ระบาย ในช่วงกลางคืน

จะมี ร้านไหน และอยู่ที่ไหนบ้าง ถามมาเลยค่าา

 

 

Happy Suki

ดึกๆจะหาสุกี้กินได้ที่ไหน ด้วยราคาบุฟเฟ่ต์สุกี้เพียง 199 บาทต่อท่าน ที่สามารถทานได้ทุกเมนูของทางร้านแบบจัดหนักในเวลา 120 นาที และยังมีติ่มซำที่ราคาเข่งละ 16 บาท เท่านั้น! เคยไปลองทานมาแล้วค่ะคอนเฟิร์มว่าถึงแม้ราคาจะถูกแสนถูกแต่วัตถุดิบ และคุณภาพของอาหารถือว่าดี และประทับใจจนอยากกลับไปทานอีก แถมเปิดให้บริการตลอด 24 ชั่วโมงเลยนะ!

         โดยเฉพาะ “หมูซาเต” ของร้านนี้เด็ดจริงที่เนื้อหมูจะนุ่ม แต่ได้รส และกลิ่นของซาเตซึ่งเป็นเครื่องหมักจากประเทศจีน ส่วนหมูสามชั้น และหมูสันคอสไลด์ก็อร่อยเลิศค่ะ รวมไปถึงอาหารทะเลที่ถึงแม้ขนาดจะไม่ใหญ่มากนักแต่รับประกันความสด ทานสุกี้ควบคู่กับติ่มซำ พูดเลยว่าสแว้กแก้ก

ที่อยู่ต้นซอย ประดิษฐ์มนูธรรม15 ถนน ประดิษฐ์มนูธรรม แขวงลาดพร้าว เขตลาดพร้าว กรุงเทพมหานคร

 

 

My café The library

ร้าน My cafe ร้านที่ความพิเศษอยู่ที่ตู้หนังสือขนาดใหญ่ ที่มีให้อ่านได้ฟรีเลยค่ะ แถมที่นั่งก็มามากมายสามรถเลือกมุมได้ใจชอบ

ที่อยู่: สาขา1 : the library นวมินทร์ ซิตี้อเวนิว สาขา2 : the music gallery สี่แยกรัชดา cmyk hotel

 

 

Fu.5 Coffee

 

ร้าน Fu.5 Coffee เป็นการตกแต่งร้านสไตล์โมเดิร์น ให้ดูโปร่ง โล่ง สบายตา โดยการดีไซน์ร้านให้สามารถนั่งได้หลายๆ คน อาหารและเครื่องดื่มที่นี่มีให้เลือกหลากหลายเมนูเลยจ้า ไม่ต้องห่วงว่ามานั่งนานๆ แล้วจะหิวเลย อิอิ ความพิเศษของร้านนี้นอกจากจะเปิดบริการ 24 ชม. แล้วทางร้านยังมีปลั๊กไฟ และ wifi ไว้คอยบริการอีกด้วย

ที่อยู่99 ถนนรัชดาภิเษก แขวง ดินแดง เขต ดินแดง กรุงเทพมหานคร 10400

 

 

ก๋วยเตี๋ยวโกบู้รสซิ่ง

ขาดไม่ได้สำหรับที่นี่ คอดื่มจะค่อนข้างรู้จักเป็นอย่างดี ทีเด็ดที่นี่คือ ก๋วยเตี๋ยวต้มยำ ที่ ใส่ไข่ ออนเซ็นเข้าไปด้วยอร่อยเหาะ เลย แถม น้ำซุปที่มี กระเทียมฉึกๆเวลาเข้าปากไปอีก สร่างหายเป็นปลิดดทิ้งแน่นอนนน

 

 

Hollys Coffee

 

ร้าน Holly Coffee เเบรนด์ดังจากประเทศเกาหลี ร้านนี้มีหลายสาขามากๆ ที่สำคัญเดินทางสะดวกด้วยรถไฟฟ้าทั้ง BTS และ MRT เลยจ้า บางสาขายังเปิดบริการ 24 ชม. แถมยังมี ฟรี wifi อีกด้วย ร้านนี้มีทั้งของหวานและเครื่องดื่มที่เด่นเห็นจะเป็น บิงซู ของหวานสุดฮิตของใครหลายๆ คนเลย อิอิ

สาขาที่เปิดให้บริการ 24 ชม. ดังนี้

1. สาขา สุขุมวิท ซอย 15 (ระหว่าง ซอย 15-17)

2. สาขา สยามกิตติ์ (ชั้น 1,ทางเข้าศูนย์ฯ)

3. สาขา เดอะ สตรีท รัชดาฯ (ชั้น B,ทางเข้าศูนย์ฯ)

 

 

ถูกและดี Foodland

ร้านถูกและดี มีอยู่ทุกสาขาใน Foodland ทั้งต่างจังหวัด และทั้งในกทม. เลยค่ะซึ่งในกทม. มีทั้งหมด 16 สาขา เลยที่เดียวคือเยอะมากกกกก ร้านถูกและดีเปิดบริการตลอด 24 ชม.บอกได้คำเดียวว่าถูกใจคนนอนดึกอีกแล้วววว หิวเมือไรก็ดิ่งๆ ไปที่ Foodland เลยอิอิ อะ อะ และถ้าคุณไม่ใช่คนนอนดึก   แต่กลับเป็นคนตื่นเช้าละก็ !!! ที่ร้านถูกและดีก็มีบริการอาหารเช้าให้อีกด้วยยยยย เอาเป็นว่าเอาทุกคนเลย อยากกินตอนไหนก้แวะมาได้ สบายยยยย

 

 

ข้าวต้มแปลงนาม 24 น.

ใครชื่นชอบ ข้าวต้ม และแสงสีของเยาวราชแนะนำร้านนี้เลย ทีเด็ดมาก เปิด ตลอด 24 ชม. มีเมนูให้เลือกเยอะมากมายถึง 40 เมนู เหมาะสำหรับ หนุ่มๆสาวๆ ที่ ปาตี้มา หมาด มาทาน อะไรอุ่นๆ อร่อยๆ ได้เลย ขอแนะนำ

ที่อยู่: แถววงเวียน 22 ซอย ไมตรีจิต เข้ามาอยุซ้ายมือ (ปากซอย โรงพิมไทยวัฒนาพานิช) กรุงเทพฯ

 

 

เจ๊เกียง โจ๊กกองปราบ

สำหรับคอโจ๊ก แนะนำโจ๊กกองปรายเจ๊เกียงที่ผ่านมาหลายยุคหลายสมัย ยังคงความอร่อยได้ แบบไม่มี ลด ร้านนี้ก็เป็นอีกร้านที่เปิด 24 แถมที่นี่ขึ้นชื่อเรื่องหมูเด้ง ที่อร่อยมากกกกกกกกกกกกกกกก และยังมี เครื่องเคียง ที่เติมได้แบบไม่อั้นอีก แนะนำ

ที่อยู่เลขที่ 114/6 ถนนโชคชัย 4

 

 

Think Thank

ร้าน Think Tank เป็นร้านที่เปิดบริการ 24ชม. อีกหนึ่งร้านที่มีความกว้างขวางสามารถรองรับลูกค้าได้เกือบ 200 คน และทุกโต๊ะมีปลั้ก และ wifi ทั้งร้าน นั่งชิลคิดงานได้ทั้งวันทั้งคืน ส่วนอาหารที่นี่ก็ขอบอกเลยว่าเด็ดมากก และยังมีอาหารเช้าบริการ ส่วนราคาก็เข้าได้กับทุกคน

ที่อยู่ถนนนางลิ้นจี่ แขวงทุ่งมหาเมฆ เขตสาทร กรุงเทพฯ (ตรงข้าม ม.ราชมงคล

 

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9 คำศัพท์ BNK48 ที่โอตะหน้าใหม่หน้าเก่าต้องรู้!!

ชั่วโมงนี้ไม่มีใครสามารถหยุดความร้อนแรงของเกิลส์กรุ๊ปญี่ปุ่น สัญชาติไทย อย่าง BNK48 ไปได้ด้วยเอกลักษณ์ความน่ารักเฉพาะตัวของน้องๆแต่ละคนทำให้เกิดแฟนคลับหรือที่เรียกว่า โอตะ ผุดขึ้นมายังกับดอกเห็ด แต่จะมีคำศัพท์ที่เกี่ยวกับ BNK48 ที่โอตะทุกคนต้องรู้และเข้าใจกับมันจะมีอะไรบ้าง มาดูกันเลย!!

1. โอชิเมม หรือโอชิ เป็นคำศัพท์ที่ใช้ในการบ่งบอกที่ความปลื้มชื่นชมในเมมเบอร์คนนั้นๆ ซึ่งสามารถมีกี่คนก็ได้ จะพูดคำว่าโอชิ ตามด้วยชื่อ ของเมมที่เราสนับสนุนอยู่ เช่น โอชิเฌอปราง

2. คามิโอชิ ใช้เรียก สมาชิกที่เป็นเบอร์หนึ่งในหมู่โอชิและสามารถมี คามิโอชิ ได้เพียงคนเดียวเท่านั้น เช่น คามิโอชิของเรา คือ มิวสิค

3. ตันโอชิ ใช้ในกรณีเรียกเมมเบอร์คนเดียวเพียงคนเดียวในวง ที่รักคนเดียวไม่มีชื่นชอบในคนอื่นเช่น ชั้นตันโอชิ เฌอปราง คือชั้นสนับสนุนเฌอปราง และชื่นชอบเพียงคนเดียว

4. DD  เป็นคำที่ใช้เมื่อเราชอบเมมเมอร์เยอะมากๆ หรือจะเรียกว่า รักทั้งวงเลยก็ได้

5. เซ็มบัตสึ ในแต่ละซิงเกิ้ลนั้นจะมีการเลือกเมมเบอร์เพื่อออกเมมเบอร์เพียง 16 คน ซึ่งคือเซ็มบัตสึนั่นเอง ส่วนคนที่ติดจะได้ร้องเพลงอื่นๆ ในซิงเกิ้ลนั้นแทน

6. เซ็นเตอร์ ตำแหน่งเป็นตำแหน่งที่เด่นที่สุดของแต่ละซิงเกิ้ล ซึ่งสามารถเป็นได้ทั้งเซ็นเตอร์ คู่และเดี่ยว ขึ้นอยู่กับการประกาศของทางบริษัท

7.เคงคิวเซย์  คือเป็นสมาชิกที่เป็นเด็กฝึกหัดของวงและกำลังพัฒนาเพื่อให้เข้ากับวงหลัก และจะได้ชื่อ่ว่าเป็นสมาชิกอย่างเต็มตัว

8.โอชิเฮน เป็นการเลิกชอบเมมเบอร์อีกคนแล้วไปชอบ เมมเบอร์อีกคนแทน

9.โดนตก คือการได้พบการกระทำน่ารักๆ ของเมมเบอร์ จนทำให้เรารู้สึกชื่นชอบ นั่นเอง

 

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9 อันดับ ฮีโร่ ROV น่าเล่น ประจำ SEASONS 8

เรามาจัดอันดับ 9 ฮีโร่ที่เหมาะกับการเล่น โหมดจัดอันดับ ในซีซั่นใหม่นี้กันดีกว่าว่ามีอะไรน่าเล่นบ้าง  เรามาดูกันเลย

9.Maloch

เจ้าเก่าหน้าเดิม ที่คุณภาพถึงจะโดนเนิฟไปบ้าง แต่ยังมีประโยชน์ในเกมส์ทุกระดับอยู่ มันเป็นฮีโร่เอนกประสงค์ที่เป็นได้ทั้งกึ่งแท้ง ดาเมจ และสกิลยังสามารถเคลียครีบได้ไวอีกด้วย

8.Gilldur

คุณลุงปาทองของเขา แพตท์นี้เค้าได้รับการบัฟขึ้นมาในเรื่องสเตตัสและ เกราะพิเศษ ที่เพิ่มเข้ามาเป็นอย่างมาก ทำให้ผู้เล่นระดับสูงนำลุงมาเล่นได้หลายมิติมาก นอกจาก เลนกลาง มันสามารถโมดิฟายตัวเองเป็นแท็งค์ ที่ เข้าออกไวและมีสกิล CC  ครบครัน

7.Chaugnar

ช้างยังเป็นฮีโร่ที่ซัฟพอร์ตครอบคลุมเหมือนเดิม เป็นPick แบนแรกๆ ในทัวนาเมนต์มันเป็นตัวละครยืดหยุ่นสูงสามารถแปลงตัวเองเป็นได้ทั้งแท็งค์ซัฟพอร์ต และแท็งค์ดาเมจ และอันติที่ล้างสถานะให้กับมันและเพื่อนร่วมทีม มันทำให้ทีมได้เปรียบมากขึ้น

6.Natalya

ฮีโร่ดาเมจเวท ที่มีพลังทำลายล้างสูงมากโดยมีเงื่อนไขในการใช้พอประมาณแต่ในระดับสูง มันฮีโร่ที่เคลียครีบเลนได้เป็นอย่างดี และเวทเต็มคอมโบของเธอคนนี้ สามารถละลายแท้งได้ในไม่กี่วินาที

5.Jinna

ฮีโร่ร้อนแรงประจำแพทต์นี้ของสายเวท ที่บัฟเพิ่มขึ้นมาทำให้อันติ ของเขาทำให้ตัวถึกขึ้นและเพื่มความเร็วเพื่อคลุกวงในศัตรู เพื่อสร้างความเสียหายในรูปแบบกลุ่มได้เป็นอย่างดี

4.Valhein

ฮีโร่ที่คนส่วนมากดูถูกในสมัยก่อน มันถูกบัฟและผู้เล่นระดับสูงมาศึกษาตัวละครนี้จริงๆจัง จนแปลงสภาพตัวเองมาเป็นสายไฮบริด ที่ป่วนด้วยเวทมนต์และทำดาเมจกายภาพได้พร้อมกัน

3.Slimz

ยังคงร้อนแรงมาจากแพทต์ที่แล้ว ยังเป็นฮีโร่ละลายแท้งและ พริ้วไหวเหมือนเดิม แต่ต้องใช้การเข้าใจและการยืนที่ค่อนข้างชำนาญจึงจะดึงความสามารถของกระต่ายน้อยตัวนี้ได้อย่างเต็มที่

2.Marja

ฮีโร่น้องใหม่ได้ไม่นานที่มีสกิลในการหลบ ทุกอย่างได้ และสร้างดาเมจแบบ Per. Sec และยังมีความถึกมากกว่าเมจทั่วไปจึงนำมาดัดแปลงเป็น ออฟเลนกึ่งแท็งค์ที่ยืนเลนแข็งมากๆ

1.Aleister

เมจเจ้าแห่งการ CC ที่เพิ่มบัฟสกิลที่อันติของเขาจะสามารถล๊อคได้โดยไม่มีอะไรมาขัดขวางเขาได้ และรวมถึงสกิลเดิมๆของเขา ทำให้สามารถเป็นตัวที่สามารถโซนได้ แทบจะดีที่สุดในเกมส์นี้เลยดีเดียว

 

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9 อันดับ Sneaker ที่แพงที่สุด ปี 2018 รอบแรก!!

ปัจจุบันตลาดค้าขาย Sneaker มีหลากหลายและการแข่งขันสูงมาก และกระแสตอบรับดีมากด้วยรูปลักษณ์และ ประวัติเรื่องราวของรองเท้าแต่ละคู่ทำให้มีความหมายและเรื่องราคาจะตามมาเป็นเงาตามตัว เรามาดูกัน ตอนนี้ มีรองเท้าคู่ไหนที่ราคาร้อนแรงที่สุด ในช่วง ครึ่งปีแรก บ้าง

9.Adidas Futurecraft 4D

รองเท้าวิ่งกึ่งแฟชั่น รุ่นใหม่ของ Adidas ที่ใช้วัสดุ และเทคโนโลยีรุ่นใหม่ ตอนออกมาเรียกเสียงว้าวให้กับ Sneaker Head ได้ทั่วทุ่งเลยทีเดียว ราคา ตอนนี้ ตกประมาณ 1200 เหรียญ

 

8.Air Jordan III “Seoul”

ประเทศเกาหลี ได้มีการจัด โอลิมปิค winter  และได้ทำการใช้โมเดล รองเท้า Air jordan และใช้แรงบัลดาลใจ ของธงชาติเกาหลีที่นำมาลงละลงตัวมาก แถมยังปล่อยออกมาเพียงนิดเดียวทำให้ ราคากระโดดพุ่งไปสูงมาก ราคา Resaleตอนนี้  ไปถึง 1400 เหรียญ

7.Balenciaga Triple S “White”

แบรนไฮเอนด์ ที่เป็นต้นกำเนิดของรองเท้าแนว DAD Shoes เป็นโมเดลต้นแบบที่ทำให้ หลายๆ แบรนด์เริ่มนำมาทำตาม ราคาตอนนี้ 1500 เหรียญ

6.Mr Porter x Balenciaga Triple S

อีกตัวหนึ่งของโมเดลนี้ คือ การจับมือร่วมกันระหว่าง Mrporter  ในโมเดล Triple S สุดยอดฮิต จนราคา Resale ตอนนี้ ขยับมาถึง 1700 เหรียญ

5.Nike Kyrie 3 “Ray Gun”

เป็นการจับมือกันระหว่าง ไนกี้และนักบาสชื่อดัง Kyrie Irving’s โดยมีชื่อว่า “Ray Gun”

ซึ่งราคาตอนปล่อยออกมานั้นแค่ 120 เหรียญ แต่ตอนนี้มันทะยานสูงถึง 1750 เหรียญเลยทีเดียว

4.Off-White x Air Jordan 1

ไม่พูดถึงคงไม่ได้สำหรับ Air jordan 1 รุ่นยอดฮิตตลอดกาล ที่ ร่วม คอลแลบกับ ดีไซเนอร์ ร้อนแรงที่สุดแห่งยุค Virgil Abloh ซึ่งชื่อนี้ การันความ Hype ได้เป็นอย่างดี

ราคาตอนนี้ พุ่งสู่ 1800 เหรียญไปแล้ว

3.Y-3 Runner 4D

โมเดลใหม่กับ Y-3 Runner 4D ซึ่งใช้เทคโนโลยี uber-limited ซึ่งทำออกมาเพียง 200 คู่บนโลก ซึ่งมีการ Run Number ทุกคู่ Retail price 535$ แต่ราคา Resale price สูงถึง 1870$

2.N*E*R*D x Adidas Pharrell Hu NMD Trail “Homecoming”

ในโมเดล Hu NMD Trail กับ Pharrell ได้ทำร่วมกับ N.E.R.D และซึ่งปล่อยในร้านของ Pusha T’s Creme  เท่านั้น ราคาจึงขึ้นสูงไปมากกว่า 2000$

1. Nike Back to the Future   อันนี้ส่วนตัวแอดเอง อิอิ สำหรับตัวนี้ คือ  Nike Back to the Future ที่ไนกี้สานฝันคนดูหนังเรื่องดัง ได้สัมผัสกับของจริงที่คิดว่าจะมีแต่ในหนังออกมาแล้ว โดย ราคานิทะลุ ปรอทแตก แต่รายได้ จะทำการ บริจาคช่วยเหลือ ผู้ป่วย จนราคา เจ้านี่พุ่งไปสูง ถึง 8000 เหรียญ ไปแล้ว

 

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9 สุดยอดผลงานของ กราฟฟิตี้ เบอร์หนึ่งของโลก Banksy

Banksy ศิลปินกราฟฟิตี้ เบอร์หนึ่งของโลก ไม่เคยเห็นหน้าที่แท้จริงของเขา และผลงานของเขา ดาราหรือเซเลบิตี้ชื่อดังหลายคนบนโลก ต่างแย่งชิงผลงานศิลปะของเขา วันนี้เรามาเปิด 9 สุดยอดผลงานของ Banksy ว่ามีอะไรบ้าง

9. Sweep it Under the Carpet – London

ผลงานจิกกัดคนที่ได้รับการตอบรับชิ้นแรกๆ ของ Banksy มันได้รับการตอบรับเป็นอย่างดี ผลงานศิลปะชิ้นนี้สะท้อนถึงจิตใจมนุษย์ ที่ทำอะไรก็ช่างมัน เก็บเข้าพรมไปก่อน

8.Bomb Hugger – London

ผลงานชิ้นนี้สะท้อนถึงสงครามและการก่อการร้าย ที่ Banksy ให้ความสำคัญกับเรื่องนี้มาก ในผลงานหลายๆชิ้น

7.Napalm Girl

อีกหนึ่งผลงานที่สะท้อนเรื่องสงครามเวียดนาม ที่ใช้ แบรนด์ของอเมริก จิกกัดโดยมีภาพสาวชาวเวียดนามที่เป็นรูปภาพที่ดีที่สุดในโลกในปี 2007

6.Think Tank (Blur Album Cover Art)

นิอาจจะเป็นผลงานชิ้นแรกของ Banksy ที่ทำให้โลกเวิดล์ไวด์ โดยเป็นภาพปกอั้ลบั้มวงร๊อค อัลเทอร์เนทีฟชื่อดังของ อังกฤษ Blur ในปี 1995

5.Death of a Telephone Box – London

เป็นการสะท้อนความเปลี่ยนแปลงในสังคม ที่โทรศัพท์มือถือเข้ามา มันคือการฆาตกรรม เทคโนโลยีรุ่นเก่าอย่างแท้จริง

4.Mona Lisa Showing Her Backside

ล้อเลียนรูปภาพ โมนาลิซ่า รูปภาพชื่อดังที่เป็นรูปหญิงสาวที่ใบหน้าและรอยยิ้มลึกลับที่สุดในโลก

3.Twin Towers – New York

ภาพรำลึกและเสียดสี เหตุการ์ณ 11 กันยา ที่เป็นเหตุการ์ณที่คนทั้งโลกเสียใจและไม่มีวันลืมเลือน

2.Israeli & Palestinian Pillow Fight – West Bank

เสียดสีและสะท้อนถึงสงคราม ของอิสราเอลและปราเลสไตล์ ที่มีเส้นกั้นสงครามที่ร้ายแรงเพียงแค่กำแพงกั้น

1.Rage, Flower Thrower – Jerusalem

ผลงานที่เป็นที่สุดของ Banksy ที่สะท้อนถึงความเป็นโลกตอนนี้ ที่ ควรจะเปลี่ยนเรื่องราวเลวร้ายให้กลายเป็นแค่ดอกไม้ให้แก่กัน โลกนี้ก็ดีขึ้น

 

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